Peerage in Pre-modern Japan
Peerage in Pre-modern Japan
Before the reformation in 1868, Japanese peerage system was closely connected with bureaucracy system created on 8th century under Chinese influence.
Grade is given to the government officials and promoted occasionally. Each government job(s) has correspond grade (or range of grade), person who hold the grade should be appointed to the job.
|senior first grade||正一位||Sho Ichi-i||usually posthumously only|
|junior first grade||従一位||Ju Ichi-i|
|senior second grade||正二位||Sho Ni-i|
|junior second grade||従二位||Ju Ni-i|
|senor third grade||正三位||Sho San-mi|
|junior third grade||従三位||Ju San-mi||Kugyo|
|senior fourth grade, upper||正四位上||Sho Shi-i Jo|
|senior fourth grade, lower||正四位下||Sho Shi-i Ge|
|junior fourth grade, upper||従四位上||Ju Shi-i Jo|
|junior fourth grade, lower||従四位下||Ju Shi-i Ge|
|senior fifth grade, upper||正五位上||Sho Go-i Jo|
|senior fifth grade, lower||正五位下||Sho Go-i Ge|
|junior fifth grade, upper||従五位上||Ju Go-i Jo|
|junior fifth grade, lower||従五位下||Ju Go-i Ge||Tenjo-bito|
|senior sixth grade, upper||正六位上||Sho Roku-i Jo|
|senior sixth grade, lower||正六位下||Sho Roku-i Ge|
|junior sixth grade, upper||従六位上||Ju Roku-i Jo|
|junior sixth grade, lower||従六位下||Ju Roku-i Ge|
|senior seventh grade, upper||正七位上||Sho Shichi-i Jo|
|senior seventh grade, lower||正七位下||Sho Shichi-i Ge|
|junior seventh grade, upper||従七位上||Ju Shichi-i Jo|
|junior seventh grade, lower||従七位下||Ju Shichi-i Ge|
|senior eighth grade, upper||正八位上||Sho Hachi-i Jo|
|senior eighth grade, lower||正八位下||Sho Hachi-i Ge|
|junior eighth grade, upper||従八位上||Ju Hachi-i Jo|
|junior eighth grade, lower||従八位下||Ju Hachi-i Ge|
|senior ninth grade, upper||大初位上||Dai So-i Jo|
|senior ninth grade, lower||大初位下||Dai So-i Ge|
|junior ninth grade, upper||少初位上||Sho So-i Jo|
|junior ninth grade, lower||少初位下||Sho So-i Ge|
- Kugyo 公卿 High court noble, third grade or higher, plus (incumbent and former) Cabinet Concillor 参議 Sangi with fourth grade. They'll be styled Kyo 卿 (Lord). The most highest grade of Kugyo, who experienced Regent-Viceroy, or Grand Minister, will enjoy special style Ko 公 (Prince).
- Tenjo-bito 殿上人 court noble, fifth grade or higher. Usually they are granted permission to enter the imperial mansion house. They are usually styled Ason 朝臣 (Sir), which was originally a grade for clan name. The grade Ason is most popular and almost common, so court nobles are usually called Ason later.
- Jige-bito 地下人 court servant, lower grades. Most of the administrative work in the court was handled by them.
After centuries with the bureaucracy system, so many precedents creates semi-official rank system for noble families.
- Sekke 摂家 regent, head of the family can reach to the highest job in the court, Sekkan 摂関 "Regent or Viceroy". Only 5 families of Fujiwara clan belong, Konoe 近衛, Takatsukasa 鷹司, Kujo 九条, Nijo 二条, and Ichijo 一条.
- Seiga-ke 清華家 prime minister. Head of family can reach Grand Minister 太政大臣 Daijo-Daijin which was usually honorable job. 9 families belong here.
- Daijin-ke 大臣家 miniter. Head of family can reach ministers, usually the most lowest rank of minister, Minister of the Inner 内大臣 Nai-Daijin, rarely a little more higher.
- Urin-ke 羽林家 guard. Head of family can reach to Senior Cabinet Adviser 大納言 Dainagon through Guard office 近衛府 job.
- Mei-ke 名家 secretary. Head of family would reach to Senior Cabinet Adviser 大納言 Dainagon through Administrative office 弁官 job.
- Han-ke 半家 branch. Head of family can sometimes reach to Senior Cabinet Adviser 大納言 Dainagon. Most of this families had specific jobs, such as arts, studies, and religion.