Era name (Japan)

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Era name 元号 Gengo

list of era names

Era name length
(year)
start end ruling emperor note
Taika 大化 6 19 Jun 645 15 Feb 650 Kotoku first era name in Japan
Hakuchi 白雉 5 15 Feb 650 30 Dec 654 Kotoku era name system suspended
Shucho 朱鳥 1 20 Jul 686 30 leap Dec 686 Tenmu revised temporaly
Taiho 大宝 4 21 Mar 701 9 May 704 Monmu revised, continues era name system until now
Kyoun 慶雲 5 10 May 704 10 Jan 708 Monmu, Genmei
Wado 和銅 8 11 Jan 708 1 Sept 715 Genmei
Reiki 霊亀 3 2 Sept 715 16 Nov 717 Gensho
Yoro 養老 8 17 Nov 717 3 Feb 724 Gensho
Jinki 神亀 6 4 Feb 724 4 Aug 729 Shomu
Tempyo 天平 21 5 Aug 729 13 Apr 749 Shomu
Tempyo-Kampo 天平感宝 1 14 Apr 749 1 Jul 749 Shomu second shortest era (107 days), only case era name changed twice in a year
Tempyo-Shoho 天平勝宝 9 2 Jul 749 17 Aug 757 Koken
Tempyo-Hoji 天平宝字 9 18 Aug 757 6 Jan 765 Koken, Junnin, Shotoku
Temoyo-Jingo 天平神護 3 7 Jan 765 15 Aug 767 Shotoku
Jingo-Keiun 神護景雲 4 16 Aug 767 29 Sept 770 Shotoku, Konin
Hoki 宝亀 11 1 Oct 770 30 Dec 780 Konin
Teno 天応 2 1 Jan 781 18 Aug 782 Konin, Kanmu
Enryaku 延暦 25 19 Aug 782 17 May 806 Kanmu, Heizei
Daido 大同 5 18 May 806 18 Sept 810 Heizei, Saga
Konin 弘仁 15 19 Sept 810 4 Jan 824 Saga, Junna
Tencho 天長 11 5 Jan 824 2 Jan 834 Junna, Ninmyo
Jowa 承和 15 3 Jan 834 12 Jun 848 Ninmyo
Kasho 嘉祥 4 13 Jun 848 27 Apr 851 Ninmyo, Montoku
Ninju 仁寿 4 28 Apr 851 30 Nov 854 Montoku
Saiko 斉衡 4 30 Nov 854 20 Feb 857 Montoku
Tenan 天安 3 21 Feb 857 14 Apr 859 Montoku, Seiwa
Jogan 貞観 19 15 Apr 859 15 Apr 877 Seiwa, Yozei
Gangyo 元慶 9 16 Apr 877 20 Feb 885 Yozei, Koko
Ninna 仁和 5 21 Feb 885 26 Apr 889 Koko, Uda
Kampyo 寛平 10 27 Apr 889 25 Apr 898 Uda, Daigo
Shotai 昌泰 4 26 Apr 898 14 Jul 901 Daigo
Engi 延喜 23 15 Jul 901 10 Apr 923 Daigo
Encho 延長 9 11 Apr 923 25 Apr 931 Daigo, Suzaku
Johei 承平 8 26 Apr 931 21 May 938 Suzaku
Tengyo 天慶 10 22 May 938 21 Apr 947 Suzaku, Murakami
Tenryaku 天暦 11 22 Apr 947 26 Oct 957 Murakami
Tentoku 天徳 5 27 Oct 957 15 Feb 961 Murakami
Owa 応和 4 16 Feb 961 9 Jul 964 Murakami
Koho 康保 5 10 Jul 964 12 Aug 968 Murakami, Reizei
Anna 安和 3 13 Aug 968 24 Mar 970 Reizei, Enyu
Tenroku 天禄 4 25 Mar 970 19 Dec 973 Enyu
Tenen 天延 4 20 Dec 973 12 Jul 976 Enyu
Jogen 貞元 3 13 Jul 976 28 Nov 978 Enyu
Tengen 天元 6 29 Nov 978 14 Apr 983 Enyu
Eikan 永観 3 15 Apr 983 26 Apr 985 Enyu, Kazan
Kanna 寛和 3 27 Apr 985 4 Apr 987 Kazan, Ichijo
Eien 永延 3 5 Apr 987 7 Aug 989 Ichijo
Eiso 永祚 2 8 Aug 989 6 Nov 990 Ichijo
Shoryaku 正暦 6 7 Nov 990 21 Feb 995 Ichijo
Chotoku 長徳 5 22 Feb 995 12 Jan 999 Ichijo
Choho 長保 6 13 Jan 999 19 Jul 1004 Ichijo
Kanko 寛弘 9 20 Jul 1004 24 Dec 1012 Ichijo, Sanjo
Chowa 長和 6 25 Dec 1012 22 Apr 1017 Sanjo, Goichijo
Kannin 寛仁 5 23 Apr 1017 1 Feb 1021 Goichijo
Jian 治安 4 2 Feb 1021 12 Jul 1024 Goichijo
Manju 万寿 5 13 Jul 1024 24 Jul 1028 Goichijo
Chogen 長元 10 25 Jul 1028 20 Apr 1037 Goichijo, Gosuzaku
Choryaku 長暦 4 21 Apr 1037 9 Nov 1040 Gosuzaku
Chokyu 長久 5 10 Nov 1040 23 Nov 1044 Gosuzaku
Kantoku 寛徳 3 24 Nov 1044 13 Apr 1046 Gosuzaku, Goreizei
Eisho 永承 8 14 Apr 1046 10 Jan 1053 Goreizei
Tengi 天喜 6 11 Jan 1053 28 Aug 1058 Goreizei
Kohei 康平 8 29 Aug 1058 1 Aug 1065 Goreizei
Jiryaku 治暦 5 2 Aug 1065 12 Apr 1069 Goreizei, Gosanjo
Enkyu 延久 6 13 Apr 1069 22 Aug 1074 Gosanjo, Shirakawa
Joho 承保 4 23 Aug 1074 16 Nov 1077 Shirakawa
Joryaku 承暦 5 17 Nov 1077 9 Feb 1081 Shirakawa
Eiho 永保 4 10 Feb 1081 6 Feb 1084 Shirakawa
Otoku 応徳 4 7 Feb 1084 6 Apr 1087 Shirakawa, Horikawa
Kanji 寛治 8 7 Apr 1087 14 Dec 1094 Horikawa
Kaho 嘉保 3 14 Dec 1094 16 Dec 1096 Horikawa
Eicho 永長 2 17 Dec 1096 20 Nov 1097 Horikawa
Jotoku 承徳 3 21 Nov 1097 27 Aug 1099 Horikawa
Kowa 康和 6 28 Aug 1099 9 Feb 1104 Horikawa
Choji 長治 3 10 Feb 1104 8 Apr 1106 Horikawa
Kasho 嘉承 3 9 Apr 1106 2 Aug 1108 Horikawa, Toba
Tennin 天仁 3 3 Aug 1108 12 Jul 1110 Toba
Tenei 天永 4 13 Jul 1110 12 Jul 1113 Toba
Eikyu 永久 6 13 Jul 1113 2 Apr 1118 Toba
Genei 元永 3 3 Apr 1118 9 Apr 1120 Toba
Hoan 保安 5 10 Apr 1120 2 Apr 1124 Toba, Sutoku
Tenji 天治 3 3 Apr 1124 21 Jan 1126 Sutoku
Daiji 大治 6 22 Jan 1126 28 Jan 1131 Sutoku
Tensho 天承 2 29 Jan 1131 10 Aug 1132 Sutoku
Chosho 長承 4 11 Aug 1132 26 Apr 1135 Sutoku
Hoen 保延 7 27 Apr 1135 9 Jul 1141 Sutoku
Eiji 永治 2 10 Jul 1141 27 Apr 1142 Sutoku, Konoe
Koji 康治 3 28 Apr 1142 22 Feb 1144 Konoe
Tenyo 天養 2 23 Feb 1144 21 Jul 1145 Konoe
Kyuan 久安 7 22 Jul 1145 25 Jan 1151 Konoe
Nimbyo 仁平 4 26 Jan 1151 27 Oct 1154 Konoe
Kyuju 久寿 3 28 Oct 1154 26 Apr 1156 Konoe, Goshirakawa
Hogen 保元 4 27 Apr 1156 19 Apr 1159 Goshirakawa, Nijo
Heiji 平治 2 20 Apr 1159 9 Jan 1160 Nijo
Eiryaku 永暦 2 10 Jan 1160 3 Sept 1161 Nijo
Oho 応保 3 4 Sept 1161 28 Mar 1163 Nijo
Chokan 長寛 3 29 Mar 1163 4 Jun 1165 Nijo
Eiman 永万 2 5 Jun 1165 26 Aug 1166 Nijo, Rokujo
Ninan 仁安 4 27 Aug 1166 7 Apr 1169 Rokujo, Takakura
Kao 嘉応 3 8 Apr 1169 20 Apr 1171 Takakura
Joan 承安 5 21 Apr 1171 27 Jul 1175 Takakura
Angen 安元 3 28 Jul 1175 3 Aug 1177 Takakura
Jisho 治承 5 4 Aug 1177 13 Jul 1181 Takakura, Antoku
Yowa 養和 2 14 Jul 1181 27 May 1182 Antoku
Juei 寿永 4 27 May 1182 24 Mar 1185 Antoku Government in exile (1184-1185)
Genryaku 元暦 2 16 Apr 1184 13 Aug 1185 Gotoba
Bunji 文治 6 14 Aug 1185 10 Apr 1190 Gotoba
Kenkyu 建久 10 11 Apr 1190 26 Apr 1199 Gotoba, Tsuchimikado
Shoji 正治 3 27 Apr 1199 12 Feb 1201 Tsuchimikado
Kennin 建仁 4 13 Feb 1201 19 Feb 1204 Tsuchimikado
Genkyu 元久 3 20 Feb 1204 26 Apr 1206 Tsuchimikado
Kenei 建永 2 27 Apr 1206 24 Oct 1207 Tsuchimikado
Jogen 承元 5 25 Oct 1207 8 Mar 1211 Tsuchimikado, Juntoku
Kenryaku 建暦 3 9 Mar 1211 5 Dec 1213 Juntoku
Kempo 建保 7 6 Dec 1213 11 Apr 1219 Juntoku
Jokyu 承久 4 12 Apr 1219 12 Apr 1222 Juntoku, Chukyo, Gohorikawa
Joo 貞応 3 13 Apr 1222 19 Nov 1224 Gohorikawa
Gennin 元仁 2 20 Nov 1224 19 Apr 1225 Gohorikawa third shortest era (148 days)
Karoku 嘉禄 3 20 Apr 1225 9 Dec 1227 Gohorikawa
Antei 安貞 3 10 Dec 1227 4 Mar 1229 Gohorikawa
Kangi 寛喜 4 5 Mar 1229 1 Apr 1232 Gohorikawa
Joei 貞永 2 2 Apr 1232 14 Apr 1233 Gohorikawa, Shijo
Tempuku 天福 2 15 Apr 1233 4 Nov 1234 Shijo
Bunryaku 文暦 2 5 Nov 1234 18 Sept 1235 Shijo
Katei 嘉禎 4 19 Sept 1235 22 Nov 1238 Shijo
Ryakunin 暦仁 2 23 Nov 1238 6 Feb 1239 Shijo shortest era (73 days)
Eno 延応 2 7 Feb 1239 15 Jul 1240 Shijo
Ninji 仁治 4 16 Jul 1240 25 Feb 1243 Shijo, Gosaga
Kangen 寛元 5 26 Feb 1243 27 Feb 1247 Gosaga, Gofukakusa
Hoji 宝治 3 28 Feb 1247 17 Mar 1249 Gofukakusa
Kencho 建長 8 18 Mar 1249 4 Oct 1256 Gofukakusa
Kogen 康元 2 5 Oct 1256 13 Mar 1257 Gofukakusa
Shoka 正嘉 3 14 Mar 1257 25 Mar 1259 Gofukakusa
Shogen 正元 2 26 Mar 1259 12 Apr 1260 Gofukakusa, Kameyama
Buno 文応 2 13 Apr 1260 19 Feb 1261 Kameyama
Kocho 弘長 4 20 Feb 1261 27 Feb 1264 Kameyama
Bunei 文永 12 28 Feb 1264 24 Apr 1275 Kameyama, Gouda
Kenji 建治 4 25 Apr 1275 28 Feb 1278 Gouda
Koan 弘安 11 29 Feb 1278 27 Apr 1288 Gouda, Fushimi
Shoo 正応 6 28 Apr 1288 4 Aug 1293 Fushimi
Einin 永仁 7 5 Aug 1293 24 Apr 1299 Fushimi, Gofushimi
Shoan 正安 4 25 Apr 1299 20 Nov 1302 Gofushimi, Gonijo
Kengen 乾元 2 21 Nov 1302 4 Aug 1303 Gonijo
Kagen 嘉元 4 5 Aug 1303 13 Dec 1306 Gonijo
Tokuji 徳治 3 14 Dec 1306 8 Oct 1308 Gonijo, Hanazono
Enkyo 延慶 4 9 Oct 1308 27 Apr 1311 Hanazono
Ocho 応長 2 28 Apr 1311 19 Mar 1312 Hanazono
Showa 正和 6 20 Mar 1312 2 Feb 1317 Hanazono
Bumpo 文保 3 3 Feb 1317 27 Apr 1319 Hanazono, Godaigo
Geno 元応 3 28 Apr 1319 22 Feb 1321 Godaigo
Genko 元亨 4 23 Feb 1321 8 Dec 1324 Godaigo
Shochu 正中 3 9 Dec 1324 25 Apr 1326 Godaigo
Karyaku 嘉暦 4 26 Apr 1326 28 Aug 1329 Godaigo
Gentoku 元徳 4 29 Aug 1329 27 Apr 1332 Godaigo, Kogon
Genko 元弘 4 9 Aug 1331 28 Jan 1334 Godaigo created by Emperor Godaigo, Kamakura Shogunate did not accept
Shokyo 正慶 2 28 Apr 1332 16 May 1333 Kogon used by Kamakura Shogunate. renounced after decline of the Shogunate
Kenmu 建武 5 29 Jan 1334 27 Aug 1338 Godaigo, Komyo Southern Court created new era name Engen on 29 Feb 1336
Ryakuo 暦応 5 28 Aug 1338 26 Apr 1342 Komyo
Koei 康永 4 27 Apr 1342 20 Oct 1345 Komyo
Jowa 貞和 6 21 Oct 1345 26 Feb 1350 Komyo, Suko
Kanno 観応 2 27 Feb 1350 6 Nov 1351 Suko abolished. Southern Court era name Shohei was used.
Bunna 文和 5 27 Sept 1352 27 Mar 1356 Gokogon
Enbun 延文 6 28 Mar 1356 28 Mar 1361 Gokogon
Koan 康安 2 29 Mar 1361 22 Sept 1362 Gokogon
Joji 貞治 7 23 Sept 1362 17 Feb 1368 Gokogon
Oan 応安 8 18 Feb 1368 26 Feb 1375 Gokogon, Goenyu
Eiwa 永和 5 27 Feb 1375 21 Mar 1379 Goenyu
Koryaku 康暦 3 22 Mar 1379 23 Feb 1381 Goenyu
Eitoku 永徳 4 24 Feb 1381 26 Feb 1384 Goenyu, Gokomatsu
Shitoku 至徳 4 27 Feb 1384 22 Aug 1387 Gokomatsu
Kakyo 嘉慶 3 23 Aug 1387 8 Feb 1389 Gokomatsu
Koo 康応 2 9 Feb 1389 25 Mar 1390 Gokomatsu
Meitoku 明徳 5 26 Mar 1390 4 Jul 1394 Gokomatsu
Oei 応永 35 5 Jul 1394 26 Apr 1428 Gokomatsu, Shoko third longest era (12366 days)
Shocho 正長 2 27 Apr 1428 4 Sept 1429 Shoko, Gohanazono
Eikyo 永享 13 5 Sept 1429 16 Feb 1441 Gohanazono
Kakitsu 嘉吉 4 17 Feb 1441 4 Feb 1444 Gohanazono
Bunan 文安 6 5 Feb 1444 27 Jul 1449 Gohanazono
Hotoku 宝徳 4 28 Jul 1449 24 Jul 1452 Gohanazono
Kyotoku 享徳 4 25 Jul 1452 24 Jul 1455 Gohanazono
Kosho 康正 3 25 Jul 1455 27 Sept 1457 Gohanazono
Choroku 長禄 4 28 Sept 1457 20 Dec 1460 Gohanazono
Kansho 寛正 7 21 Dec 1460 27 Feb 1466 Gohanazono, Gotsuchimikado
Bunsho 文正 2 28 Feb 1466 4 Mar 1467 Gotsuchimikado
Onin 応仁 3 5 Mar 1467 27 Apr 1469 Gotsuchimikado
Bunmei 文明 19 28 Apr 1469 19 Jul 1487 Gotsuchimikado
Chokyo 長享 3 20 Jul 1487 20 Aug 1489 Gotsuchimikado
Entoku 延徳 4 21 Aug 1489 18 Jul 1492 Gotsuchimikado
Meio 明応 10 19 Jul 1492 28 Feb 1501 Gotsuchimikado, Gokashiwabara
Bunki 文亀 4 29 Feb 1501 29 Feb 1504 Gokashiwabara
Eisho 永正 18 30 Feb 1504 22 Aug 1521 Gokashiwabara
Taiei 大永 8 23 Aug 1521 19 Aug 1528 Gokashiwabara, Gonara
Kyoroku 享禄 5 20 Aug 1528 28 Jul 1532 Gonara
Tembun 天文 24 29 Jul 1532 22 Oct 1555 Gonara
Koji 弘治 4 23 Oct 1555 27 Feb 1558 Gonara, Ogimachi
Eiroku 永禄 13 28 Feb 1558 22 Apr 1570 Ogimachi
Genki 元亀 4 23 Apr 1570 27 Jul 1573 Ogimachi
Tensho 天正 20 28 Jul 1573 7 Dec 1592 Ogimachi, Goyozei
Bunroku 文禄 5 8 Dec 1592 26 Oct 1596 Goyozei
Keicho 慶長 20 27 Oct 1596 12 Jul 1615 Goyozei, Gomizunoo
Genna 元和 10 13 Jul 1615 29 Feb 1624 Gomizunoo
Kanei 寛永 21 30 Feb 1624 15 Dec 1644 Gomizunoo, Meisho, Gokomyo
Shoho 正保 5 16 Dec 1644 14 Feb 1648 Gokomyo
Keian 慶安 5 15 Feb 1648 17 Sept 1652 Gokomyo
Joo 承応 4 18 Sept 1652 12 Apr 1655 Gokomyo, Gosai
Meireki 明暦 4 13 Apr 1655 22 Jul 1658 Gosai
Manji 万治 4 23 Jul 1658 24 Apr 1661 Gosai
Kambun 寛文 13 25 Apr 1661 20 Sept 1673 Gosai, Reigen
Empo 延宝 9 21 Sept 1673 28 Sept 1681 Reigen
Tenna 天和 4 29 Sept 1681 20 Feb 1684 Reigen
Jokyo 貞享 5 21 Feb 1684 29 Sept 1688 Reigen, Higashiyama
Genroku 元禄 17 30 Sept 1688 12 Mar 1704 Higashiyama
Hoei 宝永 8 13 Mar 1704 24 Apr 1711 Higashiyama, Nakamikado
Shotoku 正徳 6 25 Apr 1711 21 Jun 1716 Nakamikado
Kyoho 享保 21 22 Jun 1716 27 Apr 1736 Nakamikado, Sakuramachi
Gembun 元文 6 28 Apr 1736 26 Feb 1741 Sakuramachi
Kampo 寛保 4 27 Feb 1741 20 Feb 1744 Sakuramachi
Enkyo 延享 5 21 Feb 1744 11 Jul 1748 Sakuramachi, Momozono
Kanen 寛延 4 12 Jul 1748 26 Oct 1751 Momozono
Horeki 宝暦 14 27 Oct 1751 1 Jun 1764 Momozono, Gosakuramachi
Meiwa 明和 9 2 Jun 1764 15 Nov 1772 Gosakuramachi, Gomomozono
Anei 安永 10 16 Nov 1772 1 Apr 1781 Gomomozono, Kokaku
Tenmei 天明 9 2 Apr 1781 24 Jan 1789 Kokaku
Kansei 寛政 13 25 Jan 1789 4 Feb 1801 Kokaku
Kyowa 享和 4 5 Feb 1801 10 Feb 1804 Kokaku
Bunka 文化 15 11 Feb 1804 21 Apr 1818 Kokaku, Ninko
Bunsei 文政 13 21 Apr 1818 9 Dec 1830 Ninko
Tempo 天保 15 10 Dec 1830 1 Dec 1844 Ninko
Koka 弘化 5 2 Dec 1844 27 Feb 1848 Ninko, Komei
Kaei 嘉永 7 28 Feb 1848 26 Nov 1854 Komei
Ansei 安政 7 27 Nov 1854 17 Mar 1860 Komei
Manen 万延 2 18 Mar 1860 18 Feb 1861 Komei
Bunkyu 文久 4 19 Feb 1861 19 Feb 1864 Komei
Genji 元治 2 20 Feb 1864 6 Apr 1865 Komei
Keio 慶応 4 7 Apr 1865 7 Sept 1868 Komei, Meiji
Meiji 明治 45 8 Sept 1868 29 Jul 1912 Meiji second longest era (15985 days)
Taisho 大正 15 30 Jul 1912 24 Dec 1926 Taisho
Showa 昭和 64 25 Dec 1926 7 Jan 1989 Showa longest era (22660 days)
Heisei 平成 31 8 Jan 1989 30 Apr 2019 Akihito
Reiwa 令和 1 1 May 2019 Naruhito current era name

Southern Court era name

Era name length
(year)
start end ruling emperor note
Engen 延元 3 29 Feb 1336 27 Apr 1340 Godaigo, Gomurakami
Kokoku 興国 7 28 Apr 1340 7 Dec 1346 Gomurakami
Shohei 正平 25 8 Dec 1346 23 Jul 1370 ? Gomurakami, Chokei
Kentoku 建徳 3 24 Jul 1370 ? circa. April 1372 Chokei
Bunchu 文中 4 circa. April 1372 26 May 1375 Chokei
Tenju 天授 7 27 May 1375 9 Feb 1381 Chokei
Kowa 弘和 4 10 Feb 1381 27 Apr 1384 Chokei
Genchu 元中 9 28 Apr 1384 5 leap Oct 1392 Chokei, Gokameyama merged to Northern Court